CBSE says that school principals should be ‘Pedagogical leaders’. What exactly does it mean?


What is Pedagogy ?

It is the study of how knowledge and skills are exchanged in an educational context, and it considers the interactions that take place during learning.

In brief it is the study of  teaching and learning process.

What is Leadership ?

Leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a company or organization common goal.

When we combine Pedagogy and leadership it becomes ‘Pedagogical Leaders’.

The role of Pedagogical Leaders :

Pedagogical leaders will impact in teaching and learning by establishing school norms of continuous quality improvement.

Pedagogical leaders should influence the enduring importance of  Parent’s involvement in children’s learning and also has to be very proficient in using the school data for evaluating the effectiveness of  learning program, and meeting school standards to optimize the learning environments.

Pedagogical leadership, on the other hand, is the management of personnel learning, and its implementation is defined by each leader’s own learning concept.

Characteristics of a Pedagogical Leadership  :

1. Constant Learning -has to create a environment where it teaches the teachers & students that they not only need constantly educate themselves and importantly they need to keep sharing their knowledge with the team.

Just modeling good listening skills and talking about the positive aspects of doing this will incorporate this characteristic into any lesson.

2. Pedagogical Leadership should radiate Positive energy – It is proved that the leaders who radiates a positive energy is likely to attract those who want to be around them and will be more successful in leadership roles

3. Believe in your own Team – If someone who truly believes the leader and with  few words of encouragement from leader can do for a person and they work out of the box for the task to accomplish

4. Pedagogical Leaders sees every obstacle as an opportunity—any successful Leader takes on challenges and looks at them not as a burden or something that is insurmountable, but as someone exploring their best options.

This has to be incorporated into a lesson through presenting problems that need to be solved. The leader not only has the task of presenting the problem, but must actively engage his team to explore possible solutions that will ultimately resolve it.

The Principals  shall therefore now have a crucial role to play in the evolution of the teaching-learning ecosystem as the Head and pedagogical leader of their schools.

CBSE expects the role of school pedagogical leader, the Principal is expected to undertake the following:

a.  Lead, Guide and Support the teaching and learning processes in the school by
focusing on classroom specific requirements for transacting the curriculum, so that
both teachers and students perform at their optimal best.

b.  Direct the entire focus of all school activities towards the students’ learning and acquiring of necessary competencies. Every activity taken up by the school therefore should be mapped for the academic competencies, and for life skills, values, etc.,being acquired by the student.

c.  Prepare annual pedagogical plan of the school by designing and developing annual plan for the school by giving equal importance to scholastic and co-scholastic areas.

d.  Promote innovative pedagogy, with special focus on integrating art, sport and ICT
(Information and Communication Technology) with education, and use active and
experiential learning methods in the classrooms.

e.  Ensure joyful learning at all levels through use of such innovative pedagogy.

f.  Develop school specific resources for teaching and learning, in the form of lesson
plans, e-content, use of mathematics and science kits developed by NCERT, etc.

g.  Ensure proper in-house training of teachers in the school to enable them to
unleash their own unique capabilities and creativity in their classrooms.

h.  To be up to date with all new ideas and tools, etc. being used in education at the
global level and constantly innovate the pedagogy of the school.

i.  To make efforts to learn from the best practices of other schools, by arranging for
discussions with Principals of such schools, or through observation visits of teachers to
other schools.

For any suggestions please write down on






Effective record keeping helps in executing the school system to run effectively.


We should understand that record keeping is one of the most important management tools in school system.

These records keeping will help the management to take the key decisions like “controlling Overhead costs”, “Student & Teacher progress”,”School progress”, etc…..

Some of the important reason of record keeping in schools are for Accountability, Decision Making, acts as Guidance Counsellor, acts as an Information bank, helps in planning of day-to-day school functions, helps in analysing the Student Academic Achievement and their Behaviour, introducing the new learning techniques and technologies to school.

School Records :

Some of the below records will help the management in  planning, controlling, implementing and monitoring of policies, as well as teachers and students activities.

1. Admission and withdrawals register: 

 It is a record of all the pupils who are admitted to a school and the names of those who withdrew from various classes in the school.
According to departmental rules, the admission register is to be preserved permanently in the school.
Therefore, it is essential that it should be got specially bound and kept in safe custody.
It is to be free from mistakes because this register is at times required by superior authorities in a court of law as an evidence for the date of birth of the pupils.
At the time of admission pupil submit their relevant records like birth certificate, TC etc. along with their application.
All these papers are to be carefully preserved and entered in the admission register.

2. Attendance register:

This is another important register which is to be maintained in each class and section, showing the names of the pupils on the roll of the class or section, during a month.

The attendance should be marked in the beginning of the school hour and blanks should not be left. Students who remain absent from the school without leave for fifteen consecutive attendance is struck off from the rolls.

Its main function as its name suggests is to show the presence and absence of every student enrolled in the class.
Besides this it also provides us with many other details like Students’ address, admission number details for quick reference, different categories of children present in a class and their back ground and thus guides us in planning a lesson in accordance with the differences. 
At the end of every term, class teacher should close the register and submit it to the school head for crosscheck and countersign.

3. Class timetable:

 Class timetables are a record of how, when and where classes are held. These keep students organised and informed about upcoming classes and help students to manage their time and schedule.

4. The School calendar: 

The school calendar is a mirror where the probable dates of various events and activities to be done during the coming session are reflected. It is prepared at the beginning of each academic session. It would contain the following information.

(i) Information about the general, local and gazette holidays.

(ii) Dates for the submission of monthly, quarterly, holidays and annual reports and returns.

(iii) Dates of monthly, quarterly and annual examinations.

(iv) Dates of the meetings of the school and faculty committees, Teachers’ Associations, different societies, school excursions and educational tours, school tournaments etc.

(v) Dates of important school functions like the annual prize day, the parents day.

The school calendar provides important information about various activities to be carried out throughout the academic session.

5. Health records:

This records the names of students who were ill and sent to  school sick bays or the hospital for treatment.

6. Cumulative Record Cards:

It is a document in which the relevant information about particular students at one educational institution is recorded cumulatively.

This gives a complete and growing picture of the individual student, which helps him during his long stay at the school and at the time of leaving it, in the solution of his manifold problems of educational, vocational; personal and social.

It follows the pupil from class to class and from school. It provides an opportunity to have a comprehensive picture of the all-round development of the personality of the child. It is a very important record which should be maintain in every school.

7. Lesson plan:

 Lesson plans are records kept to guide teachers during their teaching activities. These are written on a weekly basis to determine what and how the teacher will teach.
A lesson plan is developed based on the school’s scheme of work,unit plan or curriculum.
It is presented to the head teacher for assessment, signature, date and name before it can be used for teaching.

8. Log book:

It would contain a complete record of the important events that occur during the session. It should also contain the history of the school of a particular year.

Information like the introduction of new text books or apparatus, visits of the inspecting officers, changes in the school routine, absence or illness of any of the official staff etc., should be written in the Log Book.

The Log Book is specifically designed for the purpose of containing remarks of the school inspector or other important officers of the education department, who pay an official visit to the school.

But it should not be confined to the remarks of the inspecting officers only.

The Head of the school is the only authority to make entries in this book.

9. Teacher’s Attendance Register

To record the daily attendance of the teachers, schools maintain the teacher’s attendance register.

This shows the time of arrival and departure of the teachers on each day. The teachers are to sign regularly while entering the school and leaving the school everyday.

Time of arrival of the late comers should be indicated. Leave taken by the teachers during the month holidays etc., are to be written on it.

It should be kept outside the room of the Headmaster / Headmistress.

When the first period starts, it should go to the Principal for verification.

10. Disciplinary records:

Disciplinary records are kept to protect students from arbitrary punishment from teachers and to exonerate teachers from unwarranted criticisms by parents or students.

In most cases, the head teacher approve of any disciplinary action before it is administered to a student or students.

Records concerning the disciplinary action and its approval are documented for future reference.

11. School cash book:

Cash Book is a record of all money transactions occurring from day-to-day in the school.

Money received by the school from different sources like fees, fines, donations, stipends, scholarships, grant-in-aid are entered on the credit side.

On the debit side the payments like the salaries of the teachers, stipends, scholarships, contingent expenditure incurred, deposits made in the Treasury, bank and post office are shown.

Balance is shown in red ink. It should be regularly written and the day’s business should be closed with the signature of Head of the school. It should be an up-to-date record.

12. School stock Register: 

This register keeps information of all the movable property of the school.
While purchasing equipment or furniture, it must be duly entered in this property register.
The head of the institution should check this register physically at least once in a year. Verification report should be recorded in the stock register.
It can show which articles are missing and which need immediate repairs.
The register should contain the following information :
(i) Name of the article.
(ii) Quantity of the articles.
(iii) Date of purchase.
(iv) Name of the firm which supplied the articles.
(v) The authority ordering purchase
(vi) Signature of the authority.

13. Examination registers

After examination, the marks and progress of the pupil entered in a register. The class teacher should exercise great care in entering the marks.

The signature of the headmaster should also be obtained in this register after every examination.

Correspondence registers, all relevant letters received from parents as well as replies sent to these should be recorded. Orders, circulars and notices are also be safely kept in files.

Purchase records:When articles are bought receipts, vouchers, cash memo etc. should be obtained and keep in the office for future reference.

These have to be produced at the time of audit.

14. Progress report:

After every examination a detailed report about the progress of a student is sent to the parents.

This is done by a progress report card.

15. Reports to the Parents:

To get cooperation from the parents reports containing various information about the child should be sent to the parents periodically.

It should contain information like the academic progress of the child, his health condition, participation in curricular and co-curricular activities and other important information.

As a result, the parents can know the physical, intellectual, social, moral and emotional growth of their children.

Parents are also requested to guide their children according to the information given in the report.

16. Scheme of work:

A scheme of work is a guideline that defines the structure and content of a subject.

It shows how resources such as books and equipment are to be used and how class time, class activities and class assessments are to be carried out to ensure that the learning aims and objectives of the subject are met.
A scheme of work can be shared with students so that they have an overview of their subjects.

17. Service Book:

The service book contains the service history of the employees.
Information like the employee’s date of appointment, his date of birth, educational qualifications, identification marks, permanent home address, transfer, leave accounts, date of increments, reversion if any of reinstatement etc., are carefully written in this book.
The original service book is kept in the custody of the head of the school.
The authorities should duly verify the service book and make necessary entries.
The first page of the service book contains the following information :
1. Name
2. Residence.
3. Date of birth by Christian era as nearly as can be ascertained.
4. Educational qualification.
5. Exact height by measurement.
6. Personal mark for identification.
7. Father’s name and residence.
8. Left hand thumb and finger impression.
9. Signature of the teacher.
10. Date of entry into service.
11. Signature of Head of the school.
From the next page the name of the post, temporary or permanent, monthly pay, date of increment, details of leave account etc., are written neatly.
The entries of the first page should be renewed or re-attested at least every five years except in the case of finger prints.


Mandatory documents required for CBSE Affiliation as per new CBSE bye laws


1. Registration of Not for Profit Entity (Trust or Society or Section 8 company)

The name and address of the Society/Trust/Company in this certificate should be same as mentioned in the CBSE application form.

2. Land Registration and Lease deed between the entity and land owner

Lease Document is the land is being leased to the school or Sale deed if the school bought it .

Lease deed should be in the name of school and duration of the lease should be 15 years.

3. Change of Land use certificate 

Change of Land use ( CLU) document of the land on which School is building is going to be built.

The CLU can be obtained by respective state Town Planning  & Valuation department.

4. The below permission to be taken from a local authorities before approaching the DEO 

No Objection Certificate from the state government

Affidavit of NON – Proprietary Character of Society  

Fire Safety Certificate

Health and Sanitation certificate

Building Safety Certificate

Police verification report -All School staff including Class 4 staff

Safety Audit report From local police Department

Building and master plan approval

School should obtain the recognition certificate from the state government from class 1 to 8th  

Salary paid through ECS /Cheque(Certificate issued by the associated bank)

EPF deduction certificate

5. Permission to start School  from DEO ( District Education Officer)

As mentioned in the point 4 we need to take all the above documents and has to approach DEO to getting the permission to start a School.

Please refer Page no 47,48 &49 of CBSE bye laws for the format in which DEO would give his approval.

After the submitting the required documents the DEO would visit the school and inspect, after that he would give his No objection for starting a CBSE School.

Once after we receive the permission from DEO then we need to visit the below site for applying the CBSE affiliation






School Management Committee

effective meeting management

Role of SMC ( School Management Committee) as per new CBSE Affiliation Bye Laws 2018

Major changes as per the New CBSE Affiliation Bye Laws 2018 for SMC are given below :

1. It is mandatory for all schools to have a School Management Committee, as per RTE Act 2009 or as per regulations framed by the State / Central Government. 

2. In this new bye laws even state government has a role to play in SMC

2.  The CBSE board shall nominate 2 of the members in the School Management Committee and in addition to the  nominated members by CBSE, we need to have the Head of the School, 2 parents, 2 teachers and 2 nominees of the Society/Trust/Company (ex-teachers of school or college, one shall be a women) form the minimum required 15 members of the SMC for a recognized aided school and for private unaided school shall consists of not more than 21 members.

3. At least 50% members should be a women

4. For the CBSE affiliated schools has been given a time of 1 year from the release of new bye laws i.e. from 18 Oct 2018 for implementing these changes.

5. The fee cannot be revised without the express approval of the school Mangement Committee or the process prescribed by the appropriate government under any circumstances.

6. The school management committee should meet at least twice in an academic session.

7. SMC would guide the Principal in school management.

Powers and Functions of the School Management Committee as per new byelaws 

Subject to overall control of the Society/Trust/ Company the duties, powers and responsibilities of the School Management Committee shall include but not limited to the following:

8.4.1 It shall supervise the activities of the school for its smooth functioning 

8.4.2 It will work according to the specific directions given by the Society/Trust/Company regarding admission pokey. However, it shall ensure that admissions are made as per merit without discretion of gender, disability, religion, race, caste, creed and place of birth etc strictly as per state policy.

8.4.3 It shall look into the welfare of the teachers and employees of the school.

8.4.4 It shall evolve both short-term and long-term plans for the improvement of the school.

8.4.5 It shall make appointment of teachers and non teaching staff

8.4.6 It shall exercise financial powers beyond those delegated to the Principal within the budgetary provisions of the school.

8.4.7 It shall take stock of academic programmes and progress of the school without jeopardizing the academic freedom of Principal

8.4.8 It shall guide the Principal in school management.

8.4.9 It shall ensure that the norms given in the Acts/Rules of the StateUT and of the CBSE regarding terms and conditions of service and other rules governing recognition/Affiliation of the school are strictly adhered to.

8.4.10 It shall ensure that no financial irregularity is committed and no irregular procedure with regard to admission/examinations is adopted

8.4.11 It shall approve the rates of Fees and other charges subject to the conditions laid down in Chapter-7.

8.4.12 It shall review the budget of the school presented by the Principal and forward the same to Society/Trust/Company for approval 

8.4.13 It shall ensure the safety and security of children and staff of the school and give directions for improvement

8.4.14 It shall look in to grievances of the teachers and staff n connection with their service conditions and pay etc. and dispose such grievances m accordance with applicable rules

8.4.15 The School Management Committee will meet at least twice in an academic session.

8.5 The provisions contained in Acts and Regulations of the Appropriate Government will prevail upon the provisions related to School Management Committee in these byelaws.